Constantinou, A. G. (2016). “Demystifying” the police: a participant observation study of police stops (and searches). International journal of comparative and applied criminal justice, 40(1), 79-99.
Police are empowered by law to stop and search vehicles and their occupants, once reasonable grounds for suspicion come into…Read more
Alpert, Geoffrey P., John M. MacDonald, and Roger G. Dunham. “Police suspicion and discretionary decision making during citizen stops.” Criminology 43.2 (2005): 407-434.
This study examines the influence of racial, demographic and situational variables on types of police suspicion and the ancillary decision…Read more