Annotated Bibliography

Citation (APA) Abstract
Oberwittler D., Roché S. (2018). Ethnic disparities in police-initiated contacts of adloscents and attitudes towards the police in France and Germany. In Oberwittler D., Roché S. (Eds.), Police-citizen relations across the world. Comparing sources and contexts of trust and legitimacy, Abingdon, Routledge, 73-107.None. But: "Police initiated contact is a common experience for many adolescents in France and Germany, yet while police in…
Fabien Jobard et al. (2012). Measuring Appearance-Based Discrimination: an Analysis of Identity Checks in Paris. Population (Vol. 67), p. 423-451This article sets out the main results of a survey conducted by the Centre for Sociological Research on Law and…
Nicolas Jounin et al. (2015). Le faciès du contrôle. Contrôles d’identité, apparence et modes de vie des étudiant(e)s en Île-de-France. Déviance et Société (Vol. 39), p. 3-29Based on a quantitative survey among students, this article looks at the way police offi- cers carry out stops and…
Défenseur des droits (2017). Enquête sur l’accès aux droits, vol. 1 – Relations police-population : le cas des contrôles d’identité. While for the majority of respondents, police/population relations are satisfactory, specific groups of people report more contrasting experiences. Young people aged…
de Maillard, J., Zagrodzki, M. (2017). Styles de police et légitimité policière. La question des contrôles. Droit et Société, n°97, p. 485-501.Policing styles are reflected in law enforcement agencies’ methods, deci- sions, and priorities. Based on an ethnographic study of police…
de Maillard, J. (2019). Les contrôles d’identité, entre politiques policières, pratiques professionnelles et effets sociaux. Un état critique des connaissances. Champ pénal/Penal Field, Vol. 16. The purpose of this article is to propose a critical state of knowledge on control practices and policies and their…
Jobard, F., de Maillard, J. (2019). Les relations police-population au prisme des contrôles d’identité. In Défenseur des droits (dir.), Inégalités d’accès aux droits et discriminations en France : contributions de chercheurs à l’enquête du Défenseur des droits, Paris, La Documentation française, 59-73.The article reviews the current situation on the issue of identity checks in France, focusing on four dimensions: the regulatory…
Zagórski J., Zatrzymanie przez Policję oraz umieszczenie w policyjnych izbach zatrzymań (2004). Państwo i Prawo, , 84-97The article describes the aims, grounds and procedure related to stop regulated by the Police Act. The author focuses also…
Yunliang Meng. (2017). Profiling minorities: Police stop and search practices in Toronto, Canada. Human Geographies: Journal of Studies and Research in Human Geography, 11(1), 5-23.This paper explores police stop and search practices in Toronto using the 2003-2012 data from Toronto Police Service. The findings…
Yesufu, S. (2013). Discriminatory Use of Police Stop-and-Search Powers in London, UK. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 15(4), 281-293.This paper has three purposes: first, to highlight the history of police abuses of power in relation to dealing with…
Wortley, S., & Owusu-Bempah, A. (2011). The usual suspects: Police stop and search practices in Canada. Policing and Society, 21(4), 395-407.This paper explores police stop and search activities in Canada using data from a 2007 survey of Toronto residents. The…
Weisburd, D., Telep, C., & Lawton, B. (2014). Could Innovations in Policing have Contributed to the New York City Crime Drop even in a Period of Declining Police Strength?: The Case of Stop, Question and Frisk as a Hot Spots Policing Strategy. Justice Quarterly, 31(1), 129-153.Available data make it impossible to reach strong conclusions about the role of policing in the New York crime decline.…
Weber, L., & Bowling, B. (2011). Stop and search in global context. Policing and Society, 21(4), 353-356.Introduction to book of same name
Wagman, D. y Pernas, B. (2005). Perfil Racial en España: investigaciones y  recomendaciones. New York: Open Society Justice Initiative. The vast majority of police officers at all levels of the security forces, municipal, regional and national, admit to stop…
Wästerfors, D. & V. B. Alm (2019) “‘They are harsher to me than to my friend who is blonde’. Police critique among ethnic minority youth in Sweden”, Journal of Youth Studies. DOI: 10.1080/13676261.2019.1592129Young people belonging to categories and living in areas that are targeted by the police find more arguments for detailed…
Vincejová, E. (2010). PhD thesisVincejová in her PhD thesis (2010) researched activities of the police in relation to the protection of the rights of…
Verwee, I. (2013) De politierol bekeken door de bril van de burger. Een caleidoscoop van verwachtingen en betekenissen. Antwerpen: MakluVerwee examined the way in which the population describes the role of the police. She noticed big differences between population…
Vanassche, N. & A. Verhage (2015) Racisme en etnisch profileren door politie: in België? Cahiers Politiestudies, 35-58The authors examine to what extent the ethnic minority youth of Kortrijk experiences the actions of the police as racist.…
Waddington, P., Stenson, K., & Don, D. (2004). In proportion – Race, and police stop and search. British Journal Of Criminology, 44(6), 889-914.This article examines the view, expressed authoritatively in the Macpherson report (1999), that racial disproportionality in police stop and search…
Tyler, T. R., Jackson, J., & Mentovich, A. (2015). The consequences of being an object of suspicion: Potential pitfalls of proactive police contact. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 12(4), 602-636.During the latter half of the 20 century American policing became more professional (Skogan & Frydl, 2004) and the rate…
Tyler, T. R., Fagan, J., & Geller, A. (2014). Street stops and police legitimacy: Teachable moments in young urban men’s legal socialization. Journal of empirical legal studies, 11(4), 751-785.An examination of the influence of street stops on the legal socialization of young men showed an association between the…
Tiratelli, M., Quinton, P., & Bradford, B. (2018). Does Stop and Search Deter Crime? Evidence From Ten Years of London-wide Data. The British Journal of Criminology, 58(5), 1212-1231.In this article, we used ten years of police, crime and other data from London to investigate the potential effect…
Søgaard, T. F. (2018). “Voices of the Banned:Emergent Causality and the Unforeseen Consequences of Patron Banning Policies.” Contemporary Drug Problems 45(1): 15-32.In Western cities, public authorities are increasingly resorting to the use of patron banning orders as means of reducing alcohol…
Szumiło-Kulczycka D, Kontrola osobista, przeglądanie zawartości bagaży, przeszukanie (przyczynek do kwestii racjonalności legislacji). (2012). Państwo i Prawo, 3, 34-44.the distinction in Polish law between personal control (search executed by the Police outside of criminal proceedings) and search (in…
Sweeten, G. (2016). What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Constitutional?: The Problem With Assessing an Unconstitutional Police Practice Sweeten Stop, Question, and Frisk Practices. Criminology and Public Policy, 15(1), 67-73.Critical analysis of evidence based crime policy & stop question and frisk, 
Stone, V., & Pettigrew, N. (2000). The views of the public on stops and searches. London, England: Home Office, Policing and Reducing Crime Unit, Research, Development and Statistics DirectorateThe fieldwork comprised face-to-face depth interviews with 55 individuals stopped or searched by the police during the pilot and discussion…
Sollund, R. (2007). Tatt for en annen: En feltstudie av relasjonen mellom etniske minoriteter og politiet. [Mistaken for someone else: A field study of relations between ethnic minorities and the police]. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.Ragnhild Sollund (criminology) published on the topic of relations between ethnic minorities and the police through a book entitled “Mistaken…
Sollund, R. (2006). Racialisation in police stop and search practice – the Norwegian case. Critical Criminology, 14(3), 265-292.This paper explores the reasons for the conflictual relationship between the police and ethnic minority men in stop and search…
Solhjell, R., Saarikkomäki, E. Haller, M.B., Wästerfors, D. & Kolind, T. (2018) “We are seen as a threat”: Police stops of young ethnic minorities in the Nordic countries. Critical Criminology, 1-15.This article focuses on the perspectives of young ethnic minorities in the Nordic countries who have experienced various forms of…
Skogan, W. G. (1994). Contacts between police and public: Findings from the 1992 British Crime Survey. HM Stationery OfficeAlthough earlier surveys showed a steady decline in the number of people rating police performance as very good, this decline…
Simons, D., & Schlosser, J. (2017). Inattentional blindness for a gun during a simulated police vehicle stop. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2(1), 1-8.People often fail to notice unexpected objects and events when they are focusing attention on something else. Most studies of…
Shiner, M., Z. Carre, R. Delsol, & N. Eastwood (2018). The Colour of Injustice: ‘Race’, drugs and law enforcement in England and Wales. London: StopWatch, LSE, Release.A report that captures the police reform and frequency of stop and search conducted in England and Wales, focusing on…
Segal, J. (2012). “All of the Mysticism of Police Expertise”: Legalizing Stop-and-Frisk in New York, 1961-1968. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 47(2), 573-616.Legal analysis:" This Note narrates the familiar transition from Mapp to Terry from a novel perspective. Drawing on prescriptive literature…
Searching for Change: Scottish Stop and Search Powers. (2016). Edinburgh Law Review, 20(2), 178-203.Dr Lennon examines the existing Scottish law relating to police stop and search powers, and offers a critique of their…
Saudelli, I., De Kimpe, S., & Christiaens, J. (2018). Evaluatie en regulatie van de praktijk van identiteitscontroles. Cahiers Politiestudies (Journal of Police Studies), (48), 209-226.De bevoegdheid tot het uitvoeren van een identiteitscontrole is een vaak toegepaste politiepraktijk. Identiteitscontroles worden geacht bij te dragen aan…
Sahin, N., Braga, A. A., Apel, R., & Brunson, R. K. (2017). The impact of procedurally-just policing on citizen perceptions of police during traffic stops: The Adana randomized controlled trial. Journal of quantitative criminology, 33(4), 701-726.The process-based model of police legitimacy suggests, when police are perceived to make fair decisions and treat people with respect,…
Saarikkomäki, E. (2017). Trust in public and private policing: Young people’s encounters with the police and private security guards. PhD thesis. University of HelsinkiWhile general trust in the police is high in Finland, young people’s encounters with the police can be problematic. The…
Rowe, M., Pearson, G., & Turner, E. (2017). Body-worn cameras and the law of unintended consequences: Some questions arising from emergent practices. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 12(1), 83-90.Research on body-worn cameras (BWC) has tended, through evaluations or randomized controlled trials, to look to demonstrate some assumed benefit…
Rowe, M., Turner, E. and Pearson, G. (2016), ‘Learning and Practicing Police Craft’, Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 5(3), pp 276-286.The authors consider current policy debates in the UK about the professionalisation of the police to respond to changing patterns…
Rosenfeld, R., & Fornango, R. (2014). The impact of police stops on precinct robbery and burglary rates in New York City, 2003-2010. Justice Quarterly, 31(1), 96-122.New York City experienced a dramatic reduction in crime during the 1990s and continuing through the first decade of the…
Rosenfeld, R., Rojek, J., & Decker, S. (2012). Age matters: Race differences in police searches of young and older male drivers. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 49(1), 31-55.Prior research on police searches of motorists has consistently found that Black drivers are more likely to be searched than…
Rojek, J., Rosenfeld, R., & Decker, S. (2004). The influence of driver’s race on traffic stops in Missouri. Police Quarterly, 7(1), 126-147.A small but growing body of research has produced several consistent findings regarding race and ethnic differences in traffic stops,…
Ridgeway, G. (2009). Cincinnati Police Department traffic stops applying RAND’s framework to analyze racial disparities. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, Center on Quality Policing.In 2002, the Cincinnati Police Department (CPD) joined with other agencies and organizations to improve police-community relations in the city.…
Rengifo, A. F., & Fowler, K. (2016). Stop, question, and complain: citizen grievances against the NYPD and the opacity of police stops across New York City precincts, 2007–2013. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 32-41.Data on police stops can be examined to reflect on the relative “opacity” of these encounters and how aggregate patterns…
Renauer, B. C. (2012). Neighborhood variation in police stops and searches: A test of consensus and conflict perspectives. Police quarterly, 15(3), 219-240.This study examines consensus and conflict approaches to explaining police stop and search rates in 94 neighborhoods. Police deployment, racial…
Qureshi, F. (2012). Police Stop and Search in a Southern English County. The Police Journal, 1-18.This article looks at recorded Stop and Search activity in a southern English county from April 2003 to March 2006.…
Qureshi, F. (2007). The impact of extended police stop and search powers under the UK Criminal Justice Act 2003. Policing, 30(3), 466-483.The introduction of the UK's Criminal Justice Act (CJA) 2003 extended police stop and search powers. It allowed officers to…
Qureshi, F., & Farrell, G. (2006). Stop and Search in 2004: A Survey of Police Officer Views and Experiences. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 8(2), 83-103.The capacity to stop and search citizens is a key part of the police crime reduction repertoire. This study presents…
Quinton, P. (2011). The formation of suspicions: Police stop and search practices in England and Wales. Policing and Society, 21(4), 357-368.This paper explores the interpretative practices of the police when carrying out stops and searches. Drawing on ethnographic research carried…
Quinton, P., Olagundoye, J., & Great Britain. Home Office. Research, Development Statistics Directorate. (2004). An evaluation of the phased implementation of the recording of police stops : In response to recommendation 61 of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry (Home Office development and practice report ; 23). London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistice Directorate.The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry recommended that all stops (as well as searches) should be recorded by the police and a…
Quinton, P., & Great Britain. Home Office. Research, Development Statistics Directorate. (2004). The views of the public on the phased implementation of recording police stops : In response to recommendation 61 of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry (Home Office development and practice report ; 22). London: Home Office Research, Development and Statistice Directorate.The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry recommended that all stops (as well as searches) should be recorded by the police and a…
Pływaczewski,W., J. Kudrelek, Szczytno (ed) (2010). Przestępczość stadionowa. Etiologia, fenomenologia, przeciwdziałanie zjawisku.The study concerns mostly the issue of reasons and possible preventive measures towards soccer hooligans.
Pływaczewski, E. (2017). Bezpieczeństwo obywateli – prawa człowieka – zrównoważony rozwój, BiałystokThe study analyses conflict between human rights and modern threats to public safety, also with regard to ethnic profiling and…
Pływaczewski, W., B. Wiśniewski, Szczytno (ed) (2012). Przestępczość stadionowa. Diagnoza i przeciwdziałanie zjawisku.The monograph focuses on the issue of factors determining safety during mass sport events, including legal and technical methods of…
Pettersson, T. (2014). Complaints as Opportunity for Change in Encounters between Youths and Police Officers. Social Inclusion, 2(3), 102-112. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17645/si.v2i3.44The presence of distrust in the police and how they perform their work among ethnic minority youths in socially underprivileged…
Pettersson, T. (2013). Belonging and Unbelonging in Encounters Between Young Males and Police Officers: The Use of Masculinity and Ethnicity/Race. Critical Criminology, 21(4), 417-430. doi:10.1007/s10612-013-9199-yThis article is based on a study in which the work of police officers has been followed on a day-to-day…
Petrocelli, Piquero, & Smith. (2003). Conflict theory and racial profiling: An empirical analysis of police traffic stop data. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(1), 1-11.Using data collected by the Richmond, Virginia Police Department, this article applies conflict theory to police traffic stop practices. In…
Peterson, A. (2008). Who ‘Owns’ the Streets? Ritual Performances of Respect and Authority in Interactions Between Young Men and Police Officers. Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 9(2), 97-118. doi:10.1080/14043850802450104Joining insights from the work of Richard Sennett and Erving Goffman, I probe the power relations which underlie the performances…
Peterson, A. (2013). Leanne Weber and Ben Bowling (eds), Stop and Search: Police Power in Global Context. Punishment & Society, 15(4), 429-431.Book Review of "Stop and Search: Police Power in Golabl Context" By Weber and Bowling
Parpworth, N. (2014). Allegations of the Discriminatory Use of Stop and Search Powers before the Courts: Some Recent English and American Experiences. The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles, 87(2), 92-104.Statutory stop and search powers constitute an important weapon in the police’s armoury in the battle to prevent or detect…
Parpworth, N. (2014). Reforming Police Powers of Stop And Search: Voluntary Action. The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles, 87(4), 234-244.The police use of statutory stop and search powers is an ongoing cause for concern. Research evidence dating back a…
Parmentier, S., & Vervaeke, G. (2011). In criminal justice we trust? A decade of public opinion research in Belgium. European Journal of Criminology, 8(4), 286–302. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370811411460Like other modern-day democracies, Belgium has in the last quarter century introduced many changes in its system for justice administration,…
Parmar, A. (2011). Stop and search in London: Counter-terrorist or counter-productive? Policing and Society, 21(4), 369-382.The principle of ‘reasonable suspicion’ aims to prevent the abuse of the police power to stop, search and arrest and…
O’Reilly, J. (2002). Police Traffic Stops and Racial Profiling Resolving Management, Labor and Civil Rights Conflicts. Springfield: Charles C Thomas.This text examines the numbers, the advocacy arguments and the practical realities of the'racial profiling'controversy. By applying law, logic, electoral…
O’Neill, M. (2015). The case for the acceptable ‘other’: The impact of partnerships, pcsos, and neighbourhood policing on diversity in policing. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 9(1), 77-88.Policing in England and Wales has experienced several significant events and developments since the murder of Stephen Lawrence in 1993.…
Olsen, Hilgunn (2017) Open drug scenes and police strategies in Oslo, Norway, Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 18:2, 141-156, DOI: 10.1080/14043858.2017.1388028As part of her ongoing PhD-project, Hilgunn Olsen has looked into differences in police strategies related to open drug scenes…
Novich, M., & Hunt, G. (2017). “Get off me”: Perceptions of disrespectful police behaviour among ethnic minority youth gang members. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 24(3), 248-255. doi:10.1080/09687637.2016.1239697Recent media accounts have highlighted issues of use and abuse of police force and policing practices targeted at ethnic minorities…
Norris, C., Fielding, N., Kemp, C., & Fielding, J. (1992). Black and blue: An analysis of the influence of race on being stopped by the police. British Journal of Sociology, 207-224.This article addresses the debate over the disproportionate representation of black people in the criminal justice system, with particular reference…
Nawaz, A., & Tankebe, J. (2018). Tracking Procedural Justice in Stop and Search Encounters: Coding Evidence from Body-Worn Video Cameras. Cambridge Journal of Evidence-Based Policing, 2(3), 139-163.To what extent do police stop-and-search practices, as captured on officers’ body-worn video cameras, adhere to key dimensions of procedural…
Namba, M. (2011). ‘War on Illegal Immigrants’, national narratives, and globalisation: Japanese policy and practice of police stop and question in global perspective. Policing and Society, 21(4), 432-443.Polundericing, even stop and account, despite being tied to the local, has been confronted with the current pervasiveness of global…
Nafstad, Ida (2011) Changing Control of the Open Drug Scenes in Oslo— Crime, Welfare, Immigration Control, or a Combination?, Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 12:2, 128-152, DOI: 10.1080/14043858.2011.622074Article is part of a PhD in criminology, defended 2013. She explores how drug users’ uses and experiences of the…
Murray, K. (2018). The Modern Making of Stop and Search. The British Journal of Criminology, 58(3), 588-605.This article investigates the development of modern stop and search powers in post-war Britain—namely, the legal rules that allow police…
Murray, K., & Harkin, D. (2017). Policing in Cool and Hot Climates: Legitimacy, Power and the Rise and Fall of Mass Stop and Search in Scotland. British Journal Of Criminology, 57(4), 885-905.Prior to the amalgamation of Scotland’s eight police forces into Police Scotland in 2013 by the Scottish National Party government,…
Morris, N. (2015). Stop and search: Nearly every police force is guilty of “racism”. Independent, 1-11.An analysis by The Independent has established that in 36 of the forces black people are being targeted more than…
Moeckli, D. (2007). Stop and Search Under the Terrorism Act 2000: A Comment on R (Gillan) v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis. Modern Law Review, 70(4), 659-670.This note begins with a description of the stop and search regime under theTerrorism Act 2000 that formed the background…
Miller, J.; Arenas, L.; García-España, E. (2019). Regulating Police Stops in Spain: Assessing the Transportability of a Police Reform Model en International Journal of Police Science & Management. Forthcoming.We study how the England and Wales Model (EWM) of police stop reforms was introduced into five Spanish police agencies.…
Miller, J. (2015). Identificaciones policiales imparciales y eficaces. Lecciones sobre la reforma en cinco servicios policiales españoles.  Informe técnico. Open Society Foundations.Around the world, police services, authorities and groups of civil society have worked hard to develop the best practices to…
Miller, J. (2010). Stop and Search in England: A Reformed Tactic or Business as Usual? The British Journal of Criminology, 50(5), 954-974.In 1999, the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry heavily criticized ethnic disparities in stop and search (‘disproportionality’), triggering a national reform effort…
Miller, J., et al. (2008). Racism and police stops: Adapting US and British debates to continental Europe. European journal of criminology, 5(2), 161-191.Findings from an international research programme on police stops in Bulgaria, Hungary and Spain are reviewed in the context of…
Miller, J., Bland, N., & Quinton, P. (2001). A Challenge for Police-Community Relations: Rethinking Stop and Search in England and Wales. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 9(1), 71-93.This article presents research carried out as part of a government research programme looking at how police tactic of 'stop…
McAra, L., & McVie, S. (2005). The usual suspects?:Street-life, young people and the police. Criminal Justice, 5(1), 5-36. doi:10.1177/1466802505050977This article explores children's experience of policing. Drawing on findings from the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime, it…
Makaruk, E. (ed) (2011). Poczucie bezpieczeństwa obywateli w Polsce. Identyfikacja i przeciwdziałanie współczesnym zagrożeniom, WarszawaThe study describes reasons of and challenges to Polish high trust in the Police. It focuses mainly on society's attitude…
Lundman, R. (2010). Are police-reported driving while Black data a valid indicator of the race and ethnicity of the traffic law violators police stop? A negative answer with minor qualifications. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 38(1), 77-87Are police-reported driving while Black data a valid indicator of the race and ethnicity of the drivers police stop? This…
Lichtenberg, I. D., & Smith, A. (2001). How dangerous are routine police–citizen traffic stops?: A research note. Journal of Criminal Justice, 29(5), 419-428.This note examined the danger of routine police–citizen traffic stops. The United States Supreme Court has assumed that traffic stops…
Leon Hernandez, I. A. (2019). Embodying experiences of (in)security : exploring ethnic minority youth’s encounters with the police and policing practices in Oslo. Master thesis. Norwegian University of Life Sciences, ÅsThe police are a state institution with the power to coerce and maintain “order” within a society so that individuals…
Lennon, G., & Murray, K. (2018). Under-regulated and unaccountable? Explaining variation in stop and search rates in Scotland, England and Wales. Policing and Society, 28(2), 157-174.ABSTRACT From a position of near parity in 2005/2006, by 2012/2013 recorded search rates in Scotland exceeded those in England/Wales…
Lennon, G. (2016). Stop and search powers in UK terrorism investigations: A limited judicial oversight? †. The International Journal of Human Rights, 20(5), 634-648.At the pre-trial stage of counter-terrorist investigations, an ‘Anglo-Saxon’ indulgence towards street-level policing powers has been brought to task by…
Lennon, G. (2015). Precautionary tales: Suspicionless counter-terrorism stop and search. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 15(1), 44-62.In recent years, there has been an increased focus on the use of the precautionary principle within counter-terrorism. To date…
Legewie, J. (2016). Racial profiling and use of force in police stops: How local events trigger periods of increased discrimination. American Journal of Sociology, 122(2), 379-424.Racial profiling and the disproportionate use of police force are controversial political issues. I argue that racial bias in the…
Laurent, O. (2011). Stop-and-search powers return. The British Journal of Photography, 158(7787), 12.Controversial stop-and-search powers, previously used to photographers from taking pictures in public places, have been re-introduced by the UK HomeOffice.…
Langton, L., & Durose, M. R. (2013). Police behavior during traffic and street stops, 2011. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.The data in this report were drawn from the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) 2011 Police-Public Contact Survey (PPCS), a…
Lalander, P. (2017). Staging “Chileanness”: Ethnicity, illegal drug economy and social structures. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 24(3), 240-247. doi:10.1080/09687637.2016.1264371Aim: Following a group of young men with Chilean background living in a Swedish territorially stigmatised area, the author analyses…
La ligue des droits de l’homme (2017) Contrôler et punir? Etude exploratoire sur le profilage ethnique dans les contrôles de police: paroles de cibles. Bruxelles: La Ligue des Droits de l’Homme.In 2017, La ligue des droits de l’homme carried out research on ethnic profiling. They interrogated mainly ethnic minorities. The…
Kyvsgaard, B. (2001). “Kriminalitet, retshaandhaevelse og etniske minoriteter.” Juristen.It is well known that people with a foreign ethnic background are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. The difference…
Keskinen et al. (2018). The Stopped: Spaces, Meanings and Practices of Ethnic Profiling –study. Sskh reports and discussion papersPart of a larger study. This research examined ethnic profiling in Finland with a focus on its prevalence, forms and…
Keskinen, S. P., Aminkeng Atabong, A., Himanen, M., Kivijärvi, A., Osazee, U., Rousku, V., & Pöyhölä, N. (2018). The Stopped-Ethnic profiling in Finland.This research examined ethnic profiling in Finland with a focus on its prevalence, forms and interpretations of (1) people who…
Kääriäinen, J. & Niemi, J. (2014). Distrust of the police in a Nordic Welfare State: Victimization, Discrimination, and Trust in the Police by Russian and Somali Minorities in Helsinki. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 12(1), 4-24This study focuses on trust in the police among Russian and Somali minorities living in Finland. Three hypotheses are tested:…
Johnson, R. R. (2004). Citizen expectations of police traffic stop behavior. Policing, 27(4), 487-497.The most frequent type of citizen complaint filed against police officers involves how the officer uses interpersonal communication. The most…
Jobard, F., & Lévy, R. (2011). Racial profiling: The Parisian police experience. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 53(1), 87-93.The controversy over racial profiling in policing that is explored within the pages of the Canadian Journal of Criminology and…
Jacobs, P. (2011). The use of section 60 powers in Brent: Considers the targeting of stop and search in the London borough. Criminal Justice Matters, 86(1), 22-23.Considers the targetting of stop and search in a London Borough. Discussion piece.
Ip, J. (2017). The Legality of ‘suspicionless’ Stop and Search Powers under the European Convention on Human Rights. Human Rights Law Review, 17(3), 523-544.Legal analysis of UK terrorism Acts that permit suspicionless stop and search.
Ip, J. (2013). The Reform of Counterterrorism Stop and Search after Gillan v United Kingdom. Human Rights Law Review, 13(4), 729-760.This article considers the reform of the power to stop and search originally conferred by Sections 44 to 47 of…
Hunold, D., Oberwittler, D., & Lukas, T. (2016). ‘I’d like to see your identity cards please’–Negotiating authority in police–adolescent encounters: Findings from a mixed-method study of proactive police practices towards adolescents in two German cities. European Journal of Criminology, 13(5), 590-609.Next to exclusionary and discriminatory practices in other live domains, tense police–adolescent relations and the treatment of ethnic minority adolescents…
Holmberg, L., & Kyvsgaard, B. (2003). Are immigrants and their descendants discriminated against in the Danish criminal justice system? . Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 4, 125–142.The study presents Danish data from 2000 showing disparities between persons with a Danish background and persons with a foreign…
Holmberg, L. (2000). “Discretionary Leniency and Typological Guilt: Results from a Danish Study of Police Discretion.” Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention 1(2): 179-194.Results from a qualitative study of police discretion in Denmark are presented. The aim of the study was to investigate…
Holdaway, S., & O’Neill, M. (2006). Institutional racism after Macpherson: an analysis of police views. Policing & society, 16(4), 349-369.Lord Macpherson’s definition of institutional racism was central to his report about the police investigation into the murder of Stephen…
Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary. (2013). Stop and search powers: Are the police using them effectively and fairly?Survey of 19,078 people across England and Wales about their opinions of the use of stop and search powers. Survey…
Henry, T. K. S., & Franklin, T. W. (2017). Police Legitimacy in the Context of Street Stops: The Effects of Race, Class, and Procedural Justice. Criminal Justice Policy ReviewCitizens’ perceptions of the police have been recognized as a long-standing issue of significant importance. Positive perceptions of the police,…
Havis, S., Best, D., & Police Complaints Authority. (2004). Stop and search complaints (2000-2001) : Summary report. London: Police Complaints Authority.The aim of the study is to explore the nature and circumstances of complaints made against police officers by members…
Hargreaves, J. (2018). Police Stop and Search Within British Muslim Communities: Evidence From the Crime Survey 2006–11. The British Journal of Criminology, 58(6), 1281-1302.This article discusses police stop and search within British Muslim communities and reports the analysis of statistical data collected by…
Haller, M. B., R. Solhjell, E. Saarikkomäki, T. Kolind, G. Hunt, D. Wästerfors (2018). “Minor harassments: Ethnic minority youth in the Nordic countries and their perceptions of the police.” Criminology & Criminal Justice.As different social groups are directly and indirectly confronted with diverse forms of police practices, different sectors of the population…
Giles, H., Linz, D., Bonilla, D., & Gomez, M. L. (2012). Police stops of and interactions with Latino and White (non-Latino) drivers: Extensive policing and communication accommodation. Communication Monographs, 79(4), 407-427.Following previous research on traffic stops involving police officers with African American and White drivers, a content analysis of 69…
Gelman, A., Fagan, J., & Kiss, A. (2007). An analysis of the New York City police department’s “stop-and-frisk” policy in the context of claims of racial bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 102(479), 813-823.Recent studies by police departments and researchers confirm that police stop racial and ethnic minority citizens more often than whites,…
Gau, J. M. (2013). Consent searches as a threat to procedural justice and police legitimacy: An analysis of consent requests during traffic stops. Criminal justice policy review, 24(6), 759-777.Consent searches during traffic stops offer police a way to expediently check motorists’ vehicles for contraband. Asking drivers for consent…
García Añón, J., Bradford, B., García Sáez, J.A., Gascón Cuenca, A., y Llorente Ferreres, A. (2013). Identificación policial por perfil étnico en España. Informe sobre experiencias y actitudes en relación con las actuaciones policiales. Tirant lo Blanch. Valencia. https://www.uv.es/garciaj/pub/2013_perfil_etnico.pdfThe aim of this study is the analysis of data from two surveys conducted by Metroscopia with the support of…
García-España, E., Arenas García, L., Miller, J. (2016). Identificaciones policiales y perfil racial en España. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch. This book presents the results achieved with the evaluation of the Effective Police Identification Program (PIPE) promoted by the Platform…
Frantzen, E. (2001). Metadonmakt : møte mellom narkotikabrukere og norsk metadonpolitikk [Methadon power: Linking methadon users and the Norwegian Methadon politics]. Oslo: UniversitetsforlagetThe author conducted a three-year fieldwork with methadone users and their meetings with both health services and the police. In…
Flexon, J. L., Greenleaf, R. G., Dariano, D. S., & Gibson, D. (2016). An examination of police stops and youths’ attitudes toward police: Do interracial encounters matter?. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 14(1), 21-39.Little is known about how police–youth experiences influence adolescents’ views toward police, particularly when the officer is White and the…
Flacks, S. (2018). Law, necropolitics and the stop and search of young people. Theoretical Criminology, 136248061877403.Stop and search can harm young people, damage relations between police and the community and alienate ethnic and racial minorities.…
Flacks, S. (2018). The stop and search of minors: A ‘vital police tool’? Criminology & Criminal Justice, 18(3), 364-384.Police stop and search powers have been widely criticized for the disproportionate manner in which members of black and ethnic…
Flacks, S. (2017). The stop and search of minors: A ‘vital police tool’? Criminology & Criminal Justice, 1748895817720485. doi:10.1177/1748895817720485Police stop and search powers have been widely criticized for the disproportionate manner in which members of black and ethnic…
Finstad, L. (2018). Hva er politi? [What is police?]. Oslo: UniversitetsforlagetChapter 4: Discussing "Guilty until proven innocent? On stop and search on potential suspects". This is a particularly useful reference…
Finstad, L. (2000). Politiblikket [The Police Gaze]. Oslo: Pax Forlag.This book, for the first time, provided a comprehensive criminological study of the police service, described by the police themselves.…
Ferrocarril Clandestino (2010). Informe de investigación sobre controles, identificaciones y detenciones. Madrid. This report has been prepared based on testimonies collected from June 2009 to March 2010 on massive identity checks and…
Fassin, D. (2015) Enforcing Order: An Ethnography of Urban Policing.Over the course of 15 months, at the time of the 2005 riots, Didier Fassin carried out an ethnographic study…
Fallik, S. W., & Novak, K. J. (2012). The decision to search: Is race or ethnicity important?. Journal of contemporary criminal justice, 28(2), 146-165.This manuscript examines police officer decision making during automobile stops to determine whether Black and Hispanic drivers are searched at…
Fagan, J., & Geller, A. (2015). Following the script: Narratives of suspicion in Terry stops in street policing. U. Chi. L. Rev., 82, 51.Regulation of Terry stops of pedestrians by police requires articulation of the reasonable and individualized bases of suspicion that motivate…
Fagan, J. A., Geller, A., Davies, G. G., & West, V. (2010). Street stops and broken windows revisited: the demography and logic of proactive policing in a safe and changing city In: Rice SK, White MD, editors. Race and ethnicity in policing.The contributions of order-maintenance policing and broken windows theory to New York City’s remarkable crime decline have been the subject…
Epp, C. R., Maynard-Moody, S., & Haider-Markel, D. P. (2014). Pulled over: How police stops define race and citizenship. University of Chicago Press.In sheer numbers, no form of government control comes close to the police stop. Each year, twelve percent of drivers…
Engel, R. S. (2005). Citizens’ perceptions of distributive and procedural injustice during traffic stops with police. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42(4), 445-481.This article examines the hypothesis that citizens' perceptions of injustice are based on normative factors (i.e., perceptions of equity and…
Ellis, D. (2012). Stop and Search: Disproportionality, Discretion and Generalisations. The Police Journal, 83(3), 1-18.It has long been recognised that discretion is vital to good police work. However, in Britain (and many other countries),…
Easton, M. et al. (2009) Multiple community policing: Hoezo?. Gent: Academia PressThe research of Easton, et al. mainly focuses on the community policing philosophy of the Belgian police. In their report…
Dobrowolska-Opła, M. (2018) Rola Policji w zapewnianiu bezpieczeństwa meczów piłki nożnej w ujęciu sieciowym, ToruńThe study focuses on Police effectiveness in preventing soccer hooliganism, including amont other factors the use of stop & search…
Dixon, D. (2005). Why don’t the police stop crime? Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Criminology, 38(1), 4-24.Several answers to the question ‘Why don’t the police stop crime?’ are considered. Police do stop some crime, although increasingly…
Deuchar, R., T. F. Søgaard, C. Holligan, K. Miller, A. Bone and L. Borchardt (2018). “Social capital in Scottish and Danish neighbourhoods: paradoxes of a police–community nexus at the front line.” Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention 19(2): 187-203.Community-oriented social capital strategies and punitive-oriented policing approaches conflict. Establishing local networking initiatives with community-oriented policing at the centre lends…
Deuchar, R., & Bhopal, K. (2017). Young People and Social Control: Problems and Prospects from the Margins. London: Palgrave Macmillan.This book explores young people’s experiences of social control and the state, especially those living at the margins of society…
Deuchar, R. (2011). ‘People Look at Us, the Way We Dress, and They Think We’re Gangsters’: Bonds, Bridges, Gangs and Refugees: A Qualitative Study of Inter-Cultural Social Capital in Glasgow. Journal of Refugee Studies, 24(4), 672-689. doi:10.1093/jrs/fer032It is widely recognized that refugee integration occurs most effectively within communities that are rich in inter-cultural social capital. This…
Deuchar, R. (2010). ‘It’s Just Pure Harassment… As If It’s a Crime to Walk in the Street’: Anti-social Behaviour, Youth Justice and Citizenship — The Reality for Young Men in the East End of Glasgow. Youth Justice, 10(3), 258-274. doi:10.1177/1473225410381686The concern about anti-social youth is on the increase globally, as are the range of available sanctions. This article explores…
de Maillard, J., Hunold, D., Roché, S., & Oberwittler, D. (2018). Different styles of policing: discretionary power in street controls by the public police in France and Germany. Policing and society, 28(2), 175-188.By analysing French and German police stop and search on the streets based on embedded observations in police patrols and…
Delsol, R. & M. Shiner (eds) (2015). Stop and Search: the Anatomy of a Police Power. London: Palgrave MacmillanThis book reviews the key controversies surrounding the police power to stop and search members of the public. It explores…
Delsol, R., & Shiner, M. (2006). Regulating stop and search: A challenge for police and community relations in England and Wales. Critical Criminology, 14(3), 241-263.Policing in England and Wales has become increasingly contested since the 1960s and has been subject to unprecedented levels of…
Delsol, R. (2011). Stop and search – renewed powers, less accountability? Criminal Justice Matters, 86(1), 20-21.Discussion of PACE 30 years after the Brixton Riots in the UK. Includes discussions of how stop and search has…
De Hert, P., & Meerschaut, K. (2007). Identiteitscontroles in rechtsvergelijkend perspectief. Moet controle op kleur worden gemeten. Orde van de dag, 40, 11-20.The use of identity checks by the police is regularly contested by groups of young people with an immigrant origin.…
Defensor del Pueblo (2013). Recomendaciones a la Dirección General de la Policía contra los controles de identificación basados en perfiles raciales. http://www.defensordelpueblo.es/es/Prensa/Institucional/Actividades/contenido_1368692989334.htmlRecommendations of the Spanish Ombudsman to the Directorate General of the Police so that, Circular 1/2010, of January 25, is…
Crofts, T. (2010). Stop and Search without Reasonable Suspicion: Is WA Becoming a Police State? Alternative Law Journal, 35(4), 199-202.In response to fear that violent crime is getting out of control, especially in entertainment districts, there is currently a…
Crawford, A. (2009). Criminalizing Sociability through Anti-social Behaviour Legislation: Dispersal Powers, Young People and the Police. Youth Justice, 9(1), 5-26. doi:10.1177/1473225408101429This article explores the impact of dispersal powers introduced as part of the British government's drive to tackle anti-social behaviour.…
Craen, M. Van (2013). Explaining Majority and Minority Trust in the Police, Justice Quarterly, 30:6, 1042-1067, DOI: 10.1080/07418825.2011.649295This article tests the contribution that social capital theory, performance theory, and the procedural justice-based model can make towards explaining…
Coviello, D., & Persico, N. (2015). An economic analysis of black-white disparities in the New York police Department’s stop-and-frisk programa. Journal of Legal Studies, 44(2), 315-360.We introduce a model to explore the identification of two distinct sources of bias in the New York Police Department’s…
Cora Ł., O pojęciu pozaprocesowego zatrzymania osoby (2008). Państwo i Prawo, 3, 72-82The article describes the aims, grounds and procedure related to stop regulated by the Police Act. There are three types…
Constantinou, A. G. (2016). “Demystifying” the police: a participant observation study of police stops (and searches). International journal of comparative and applied criminal justice, 40(1), 79-99.Police are empowered by law to stop and search vehicles and their occupants, once reasonable grounds for suspicion come into…
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2011). Politiewaardering: Trends en achtergronden. [Police appreciation: Trends and backgrounds]. The Hague: Statistics Netherlands.Report by Statistics Netherlands on police appreciation in the public. Report finds that appreciation of the police in the general…
Carroll, L., & Gonzalez, M. L. (2014). Out of place: Racial stereotypes and the ecology of frisks and searches following traffic stops. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 51(5), 559-584.Objectives: Test hypotheses drawn from Smith and Alpert's social conditioning theory that explains biased policing as the result of implicit…
Cao, L. (2001). A Problem in no-Problem-Policing in Germany: Confidence in the Police Germany and USA. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law & Criminal Justice, 9(3), 167–179. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718170120519390This article compares the confidence toward the police in Germany, and in the U.S., and explores the differences in the…
Cakmak, M. and R. Wellendorf (2007). Gadedrenge – yngre etniske drenge i gadebilledet og deres møder med politi og borgere [Lads – younger ethnic boys in the street and their encounters with the police and the citizens]. Center for UngdomsforskningThis report documents studies from six European scientists. The purpose of the studies is to gain an understanding of the…
Bradley, J. (2018). Is stop and search a deterrent? BMJ, K2122.Full letter: Torjesen says that Scotland was successful in reducing knife crime by adopting a public health approach and not…
Bradford, B., & Topping, J. (2018). Now you see it, now you don’t: On the (in)visibility of police stop and search in Northern Ireland. Criminology and Criminal Justice (2018) (In Press), Criminology and Criminal Justice (2018) (In press).Police stop and search practices have been subject to voluminous debate for over forty years in the United Kingdom. Yet…
Bowling, B. (2008). Zero policy: Critiques the commitment to ‘zero tolerance’ arguing that it sanctions police abuse of stop-and-search powers. Criminal Justice Matters, 71(1), 6-7.Discussion of 'zero tolerance' styles of policing into political agenda
Bowling, B., & Phillips, C. (2007). Disproportionate and Discriminatory: Reviewing the Evidence on Police Stop and Search. Modern Law Review, 70(6), 936-961.Eight years after the Lawrence Inquiry, the question of police powers to stop and search people in public places remains…
Borooah, V. (2011). Racial Disparity in Police Stop and Searches in England and Wales. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 27(4), 453-473.Data published by the United Kingdom’s Ministry for Justice clearly shows that, compared to persons who were White, members of…
Blalock, G., DeVaro, J., Leventhal, S., & Simon, D. H. (2011). Gender bias in power relationships: evidence from police traffic stops. Applied Economics, 43(29), 4469-4485.We test for the existence of gender bias in power relationships. Speci cally, we examine whether police offcers are less…
Belur, J. (2011). Police stop and search in India: Mumbai nakabandi. Policing and Society, 21(4), 420-431.The Indian police have wide discretionary powers of stop and search. One peculiar and regular manifestation of this power is…
Belina, Bernd & Svenja Keitzel (2018): Racial Profiling. Kriminologisches Journal 50(1): 18-24.Like no other field of science critical criminology is predestined to analyze and criticize racial profiling. This paper identifies three…
Barnum, C., & Perfetti, R. (2010). Race-Sensitive Choices by Police Officers in Traffic Stop Encounters. Police Quarterly, 13(2), 180-208.This study introduces a statistical estimator that can be used to examine disproportionate traffic stop behavior of police officers. This…
Avdija, A. (2014). Police Stop-and-Frisk Practices: An Examination of Factors That Affect Officers’ Decisions to Initiate a Stop-and-Frisk Police Procedure. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 16(1), 26-35.The purpose of this research is to examine the factors that affect an officer's decision to initiate a stop-and-frisk procedure.…
Ariel, B., & Tankebe, J. (2018). Racial stratification and multiple outcomes in police stops and searches. Policing and Society, 28(5), 507-525.The present study explores ethnic differences in stop-and-search outcomes. It uses data from 53,858 stop-and-search incidents recorded by a United…
Arenas García, L. y García-España, E. (2019). “La gestión de la diversidad en la cultura policial: Aproximación empírica a políticas policiales de identificación en calle” en Securitización de las fronteras y criminalización de los inmigrantes en la era de la Globalización. Ediciones jurídicas de Santiago (Chile).Given the transcendence and impact of police management of diversity in society, this paper aims to conceptually delimit the term,…
Arenas, L./ García-España, E. (2016). Identificaciones policiales y discriminación racial en España. Evaluación de un programa para su reducción, en Boletín Criminológico, (3) 163.  According to some studies (ESS, 2010; García Añón et al, 2013), police officers treat people of different races or ethnic…
Ansel-Henry, A. J., Susanne Branner (2003). Konflikt på gadeplan. Når etnisk minoritetsungdom og politi mødes [street conflicts. When ethnic minorities meet]: 1-82. Center for ungdomsforskning, Roskilde UniversitetscenterThe aim of this report is to illuminate the street-level meeting between young Danes with minority ethnic backgrounds and the…
Amnesty International (2014) Racial/ethnic profiling: Positionspapier zu menschenrechtswidrigen personenkontrollen. Sektion der Bundesrepublik Deutschland e. V.The report concerns the issue of racial profiling in Germany, namely those who supposedly "do not look like Germans" and…
Amnesty International (2018) ‘Je weet nooit met mensen zoals jij’: politiebeleid ter preventie van etnisch profileren in België. Brussel: Amnesty International.In 2018 Amnesty International Belgium decided to do some research into ethnic profiling by interrogating police officers. 48 police officers…
Alpert, Geoffrey P., John M. MacDonald, and Roger G. Dunham. “Police suspicion and discretionary decision making during citizen stops.” Criminology 43.2 (2005): 407-434.This study examines the influence of racial, demographic and situational variables on types of police suspicion and the ancillary decision…
Aasgaard, I. & M. Langford (2019) “Policing”, book chapter in Langford, Skivenes & Søvig (eds), Children Rights in Norway: an Implementation paradox. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.This chapter specifically addressed racial profiling in Norway. Aasgaard and Langford debates the international critique of Norway (e.g. EU, UN)…