Countries USA

Cao, L. (2001). A Problem in no-Problem-Policing in Germany: Confidence in the Police Germany and USA. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law & Criminal Justice, 9(3), 167–179. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718170120519390

comparative research, Germany, history, police, Trust, US

This article compares the confidence toward the police in Germany, and in the U.S., and explores the differences in the…

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Carroll, L., & Gonzalez, M. L. (2014). Out of place: Racial stereotypes and the ecology of frisks and searches following traffic stops. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 51(5), 559-584.

None given

Objectives: Test hypotheses drawn from Smith and Alpert's social conditioning theory that explains biased policing as the result of implicit…

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Barnum, C., & Perfetti, R. (2010). Race-Sensitive Choices by Police Officers in Traffic Stop Encounters. Police Quarterly, 13(2), 180-208.

baseline, cognitive activity, cognitive bias, discrimination, disproportionality, disproportionate, minority, officer, police, race, racial, racial profiling, stereotyping, traffic analysis

This study introduces a statistical estimator that can be used to examine disproportionate traffic stop behavior of police officers. This…

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Blalock, G., DeVaro, J., Leventhal, S., & Simon, D. H. (2011). Gender bias in power relationships: evidence from police traffic stops. Applied Economics, 43(29), 4469-4485.

bias, citations, Gender, police, power, tickets

We test for the existence of gender bias in power relationships. Speci cally, we examine whether police offcers are less…

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Avdija, A. (2014). Police Stop-and-Frisk Practices: An Examination of Factors That Affect Officers’ Decisions to Initiate a Stop-and-Frisk Police Procedure. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 16(1), 26-35.

high-crime areas, proactive policing, racialised policing, stop-and-frisk

The purpose of this research is to examine the factors that affect an officer's decision to initiate a stop-and-frisk procedure.…

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Alpert, Geoffrey P., John M. MacDonald, and Roger G. Dunham. “Police suspicion and discretionary decision making during citizen stops.” Criminology 43.2 (2005): 407-434.

citizen stops, Police decision making, police suspicion

This study examines the influence of racial, demographic and situational variables on types of police suspicion and the ancillary decision…

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