Countries USA

Tyler, T. R., Fagan, J., & Geller, A. (2014). Street stops and police legitimacy: Teachable moments in young urban men’s legal socialization. Journal of empirical legal studies, 11(4), 751-785.

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An examination of the influence of street stops on the legal socialization of young men showed an association between the…

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Rengifo, A. F., & Fowler, K. (2016). Stop, question, and complain: citizen grievances against the NYPD and the opacity of police stops across New York City precincts, 2007–2013. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 32-41.

civilian complaints, misconduct, policing, question and frisk, stop

Data on police stops can be examined to reflect on the relative “opacity” of these encounters and how aggregate patterns…

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Rojek, J., Rosenfeld, R., & Decker, S. (2004). The influence of driver’s race on traffic stops in Missouri. Police Quarterly, 7(1), 126-147.

policing, population weighting, racial profiling, traffic stops

A small but growing body of research has produced several consistent findings regarding race and ethnic differences in traffic stops,…

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Rosenfeld, R., Rojek, J., & Decker, S. (2012). Age matters: Race differences in police searches of young and older male drivers. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 49(1), 31-55.

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Prior research on police searches of motorists has consistently found that Black drivers are more likely to be searched than…

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Rosenfeld, R., & Fornango, R. (2014). The impact of police stops on precinct robbery and burglary rates in New York City, 2003-2010. Justice Quarterly, 31(1), 96-122.

crime rates, police stops

New York City experienced a dramatic reduction in crime during the 1990s and continuing through the first decade of the…

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Renauer, B. C. (2012). Neighborhood variation in police stops and searches: A test of consensus and conflict perspectives. Police quarterly, 15(3), 219-240.

conflict theory, racial profiling, racial threat, social conditioning

This study examines consensus and conflict approaches to explaining police stop and search rates in 94 neighborhoods. Police deployment, racial…

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Norris, C., Fielding, N., Kemp, C., & Fielding, J. (1992). Black and blue: An analysis of the influence of race on being stopped by the police. British Journal of Sociology, 207-224.

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This article addresses the debate over the disproportionate representation of black people in the criminal justice system, with particular reference…

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Miller, J., et al. (2008). Racism and police stops: Adapting US and British debates to continental Europe. European journal of criminology, 5(2), 161-191.

disproportionality, Ethnic profiling, Institutional racism, police stops racial profiling

Findings from an international research programme on police stops in Bulgaria, Hungary and Spain are reviewed in the context of…

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