Wagman, D. y Pernas, B. (2005). Perfil Racial en España: investigaciones y  recomendaciones. New York: Open Society Justice Initiative. 

Published on 10/01/2020

The vast majority of police officers at all levels of the security forces, municipal, regional and national, admit to stop more frequently to members of ethnic minorities and immigrants than to non-ethnic minority Spanish people. Although some police officers explain that these stops, identifications and searches of disproportionate ethnic minorities are directly linked to the country’s immigration policy and the need to verify the status of immigrants’ documents and / or the carrying out of operations Anti-terrorist, the most common reason cited by police officers interviewed has to do with their belief that ethnic minorities are more likely to commit crimes. With comments like “The majority of detentions are immigrants and gypsies”. “All homicides are related to immigrants, as well as 90% of the crimes of drug trafficking and mistreatment of women.” “The dangerous criminals are foreigners” “Gypsies do not work. They commit robberies, robberies and fight “, it is impossible to dismiss the role played by racial stereotypes and discrimination in police practices despite the insistence of many agents in their neutrality.

Søgaard, T. F. (2018). "Voices of the Banned:Emergent Causality and the Unforeseen Consequences of Patron Banning Policies." Contemporary Drug Problems 45(1): 15-32.

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Wortley, S., & Owusu-Bempah, A. (2011). The usual suspects: Police stop and search practices in Canada. Policing and Society, 21(4), 395-407.

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