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Constantinou, A. G. (2016). “Demystifying” the police: a participant observation study of police stops (and searches). International journal of comparative and applied criminal justice, 40(1), 79-99.
Police are empowered by law to stop and search vehicles and their occupants, once reasonable grounds for suspicion come into…Read more
Borooah, V. (2011). Racial Disparity in Police Stop and Searches in England and Wales. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 27(4), 453-473.
Data published by the United Kingdom’s Ministry for Justice clearly shows that, compared to persons who were White, members of…Read more
Bowling, B., & Phillips, C. (2007). Disproportionate and Discriminatory: Reviewing the Evidence on Police Stop and Search. Modern Law Review, 70(6), 936-961.
Eight years after the Lawrence Inquiry, the question of police powers to stop and search people in public places remains…Read more
Bradford, B., & Topping, J. (2018). Now you see it, now you don’t: On the (in)visibility of police stop and search in Northern Ireland. Criminology and Criminal Justice (2018) (In Press), Criminology and Criminal Justice (2018) (In press).
Police stop and search practices have been subject to voluminous debate for over forty years in the United Kingdom. Yet…Read more
Cao, L. (2001). A Problem in no-Problem-Policing in Germany: Confidence in the Police Germany and USA. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law & Criminal Justice, 9(3), 167–179. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718170120519390
This article compares the confidence toward the police in Germany, and in the U.S., and explores the differences in the…Read more
Carroll, L., & Gonzalez, M. L. (2014). Out of place: Racial stereotypes and the ecology of frisks and searches following traffic stops. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 51(5), 559-584.
Objectives: Test hypotheses drawn from Smith and Alpert's social conditioning theory that explains biased policing as the result of implicit…Read more
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2011). Politiewaardering: Trends en achtergronden. [Police appreciation: Trends and backgrounds]. The Hague: Statistics Netherlands.
Report by Statistics Netherlands on police appreciation in the public. Report finds that appreciation of the police in the general…Read more
Avdija, A. (2014). Police Stop-and-Frisk Practices: An Examination of Factors That Affect Officers’ Decisions to Initiate a Stop-and-Frisk Police Procedure. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 16(1), 26-35.
The purpose of this research is to examine the factors that affect an officer's decision to initiate a stop-and-frisk procedure.…Read more
Barnum, C., & Perfetti, R. (2010). Race-Sensitive Choices by Police Officers in Traffic Stop Encounters. Police Quarterly, 13(2), 180-208.
This study introduces a statistical estimator that can be used to examine disproportionate traffic stop behavior of police officers. This…Read more