Document Types Article

Constantinou, A. G. (2016). “Demystifying” the police: a participant observation study of police stops (and searches). International journal of comparative and applied criminal justice, 40(1), 79-99.

Cyprus, police discretion, Police Powers, suspicion, traffic stops

Police are empowered by law to stop and search vehicles and their occupants, once reasonable grounds for suspicion come into…

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Borooah, V. (2011). Racial Disparity in Police Stop and Searches in England and Wales. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 27(4), 453-473.

Data published by the United Kingdom’s Ministry for Justice clearly shows that, compared to persons who were White, members of…

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Bowling, B., & Phillips, C. (2007). Disproportionate and Discriminatory: Reviewing the Evidence on Police Stop and Search. Modern Law Review, 70(6), 936-961.

Criminal Justice, Police Powers, Racism Racial Discrimination, stop and search

Eight years after the Lawrence Inquiry, the question of police powers to stop and search people in public places remains…

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Bradford, B., & Topping, J. (2018). Now you see it, now you don’t: On the (in)visibility of police stop and search in Northern Ireland. Criminology and Criminal Justice (2018) (In Press), Criminology and Criminal Justice (2018) (In press).

stop and search; Police Service of Northern Ireland; police powers; social control

Police stop and search practices have been subject to voluminous debate for over forty years in the United Kingdom. Yet…

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Cao, L. (2001). A Problem in no-Problem-Policing in Germany: Confidence in the Police Germany and USA. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law & Criminal Justice, 9(3), 167–179. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718170120519390

comparative research, Germany, history, police, Trust, US

This article compares the confidence toward the police in Germany, and in the U.S., and explores the differences in the…

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Carroll, L., & Gonzalez, M. L. (2014). Out of place: Racial stereotypes and the ecology of frisks and searches following traffic stops. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 51(5), 559-584.

None given

Objectives: Test hypotheses drawn from Smith and Alpert's social conditioning theory that explains biased policing as the result of implicit…

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Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2011). Politiewaardering: Trends en achtergronden. [Police appreciation: Trends and backgrounds]. The Hague: Statistics Netherlands.

Report by Statistics Netherlands on police appreciation in the public. Report finds that appreciation of the police in the general…

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Avdija, A. (2014). Police Stop-and-Frisk Practices: An Examination of Factors That Affect Officers’ Decisions to Initiate a Stop-and-Frisk Police Procedure. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 16(1), 26-35.

high-crime areas, proactive policing, racialised policing, stop-and-frisk

The purpose of this research is to examine the factors that affect an officer's decision to initiate a stop-and-frisk procedure.…

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Barnum, C., & Perfetti, R. (2010). Race-Sensitive Choices by Police Officers in Traffic Stop Encounters. Police Quarterly, 13(2), 180-208.

baseline, cognitive activity, cognitive bias, discrimination, disproportionality, disproportionate, minority, officer, police, race, racial, racial profiling, stereotyping, traffic analysis

This study introduces a statistical estimator that can be used to examine disproportionate traffic stop behavior of police officers. This…

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