Avdija, A. (2014). Police Stop-and-Frisk Practices: An Examination of Factors That Affect Officers’ Decisions to Initiate a Stop-and-Frisk Police Procedure. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 16(1), 26-35.
The purpose of this research is to examine the factors that affect an officer's decision to initiate a stop-and-frisk procedure.…Read more
Barnum, C., & Perfetti, R. (2010). Race-Sensitive Choices by Police Officers in Traffic Stop Encounters. Police Quarterly, 13(2), 180-208.
This study introduces a statistical estimator that can be used to examine disproportionate traffic stop behavior of police officers. This…Read more
Belur, J. (2011). Police stop and search in India: Mumbai nakabandi. Policing and Society, 21(4), 420-431.
The Indian police have wide discretionary powers of stop and search. One peculiar and regular manifestation of this power is…Read more
Blalock, G., DeVaro, J., Leventhal, S., & Simon, D. H. (2011). Gender bias in power relationships: evidence from police traffic stops. Applied Economics, 43(29), 4469-4485.
We test for the existence of gender bias in power relationships. Speci cally, we examine whether police offcers are less…Read more
Alpert, Geoffrey P., John M. MacDonald, and Roger G. Dunham. “Police suspicion and discretionary decision making during citizen stops.” Criminology 43.2 (2005): 407-434.
This study examines the influence of racial, demographic and situational variables on types of police suspicion and the ancillary decision…Read more
Ariel, B., & Tankebe, J. (2018). Racial stratification and multiple outcomes in police stops and searches. Policing and Society, 28(5), 507-525.
The present study explores ethnic differences in stop-and-search outcomes. It uses data from 53,858 stop-and-search incidents recorded by a United…Read more
Aasgaard, I. & M. Langford (2019) “Policing”, book chapter in Langford, Skivenes & Søvig (eds), Children Rights in Norway: an Implementation paradox. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
This chapter specifically addressed racial profiling in Norway. Aasgaard and Langford debates the international critique of Norway (e.g. EU, UN)…Read more