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Avdija, A. (2014). Police Stop-and-Frisk Practices: An Examination of Factors That Affect Officers’ Decisions to Initiate a Stop-and-Frisk Police Procedure. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 16(1), 26-35.

high-crime areas, proactive policing, racialised policing, stop-and-frisk

The purpose of this research is to examine the factors that affect an officer's decision to initiate a stop-and-frisk procedure.…

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Barnum, C., & Perfetti, R. (2010). Race-Sensitive Choices by Police Officers in Traffic Stop Encounters. Police Quarterly, 13(2), 180-208.

baseline, cognitive activity, cognitive bias, discrimination, disproportionality, disproportionate, minority, officer, police, race, racial, racial profiling, stereotyping, traffic analysis

This study introduces a statistical estimator that can be used to examine disproportionate traffic stop behavior of police officers. This…

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Belur, J. (2011). Police stop and search in India: Mumbai nakabandi. Policing and Society, 21(4), 420-431.

Mumbai police; nakabandi; stop and search; India

The Indian police have wide discretionary powers of stop and search. One peculiar and regular manifestation of this power is…

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Blalock, G., DeVaro, J., Leventhal, S., & Simon, D. H. (2011). Gender bias in power relationships: evidence from police traffic stops. Applied Economics, 43(29), 4469-4485.

bias, citations, Gender, police, power, tickets

We test for the existence of gender bias in power relationships. Speci cally, we examine whether police offcers are less…

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Alpert, Geoffrey P., John M. MacDonald, and Roger G. Dunham. “Police suspicion and discretionary decision making during citizen stops.” Criminology 43.2 (2005): 407-434.

citizen stops, Police decision making, police suspicion

This study examines the influence of racial, demographic and situational variables on types of police suspicion and the ancillary decision…

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Ariel, B., & Tankebe, J. (2018). Racial stratification and multiple outcomes in police stops and searches. Policing and Society, 28(5), 507-525.

arrests, Donald Black, ethnicity, formal warnings, stop and search, Stratification

The present study explores ethnic differences in stop-and-search outcomes. It uses data from 53,858 stop-and-search incidents recorded by a United…

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Aasgaard, I. & M. Langford (2019) “Policing”, book chapter in Langford, Skivenes & Søvig (eds), Children Rights in Norway: an Implementation paradox. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Children, racial profiling, stop and search

This chapter specifically addressed racial profiling in Norway. Aasgaard and Langford debates the international critique of Norway (e.g. EU, UN)…

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