According to some studies (ESS, 2010; García Añón et al, 2013), police officers treat people of different races or ethnic groups worse, and they usually stop gipsy citizens 10 times more than the others, maghrebi citizens 7.5 times more and afro-latin american citizens 6.5 times more. This kind of behaviors not only leads to institutional discrimination, but it also reduces legitimacy and trust in law enforcement. Studies of police legitimacy consider that it is related to the decision making quality (impartiality, equal treatment, transparency, etc.) as well as to personal treatment (dignified and respectful). The Program for the Effective Police Stop (PIPE) was created with the goal of decreasing ethnic bias in police stops and to narrow the distance between police and diverse society. The results confirm the existence of disproportionality in police practices with minority groups, and highlights the benefits of these programs to reduce them.
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