The purpose of this article is to propose a critical state of knowledge on control practices and policies and their effects in Western countries. Firstly, we discuss the issue of disparity and disproportionality in control practices by focusing on the profiles of the most frequently controlled individuals and the conduct of controls. Secondly, we analyse the social effects, addressing both their potential effectiveness in the fight against delinquency as their consequences in terms of distrust, and more broadly the production of a relegated citizenship. Finally, we examine what determines controls, questioning their professional meanings and police policies.
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