Défenseur des droits (2017). Enquête sur l’accès aux droits, vol. 1 – Relations police-population : le cas des contrôles d’identité. 

Published on 10/01/2020

While for the majority of respondents, police/population relations are satisfactory, specific groups of people report more contrasting experiences. Young people aged 18-25 report 7 times more checks than the population as a whole and men perceived as black or Arab appear to be five times more concerned by frequent checks (i.e. more than five times in the last five years).

Weisburd, D., Telep, C., & Lawton, B. (2014). Could Innovations in Policing have Contributed to the New York City Crime Drop even in a Period of Declining Police Strength?: The Case of Stop, Question and Frisk as a Hot Spots Policing Strategy. Justice Quarterly, 31(1), 129-153.

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Fabien Jobard et al. (2012). Measuring Appearance-Based Discrimination: an Analysis of Identity Checks in Paris. Population (Vol. 67), p. 423-451

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