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Lichtenberg, I. D., & Smith, A. (2001). How dangerous are routine police–citizen traffic stops?: A research note. Journal of Criminal Justice, 29(5), 419-428.

None given

This note examined the danger of routine police–citizen traffic stops. The United States Supreme Court has assumed that traffic stops…

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Legewie, J. (2016). Racial profiling and use of force in police stops: How local events trigger periods of increased discrimination. American Journal of Sociology, 122(2), 379-424.

disproportinate police force, fatal shootings, minorities, racial profiling

Racial profiling and the disproportionate use of police force are controversial political issues. I argue that racial bias in the…

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Langton, L., & Durose, M. R. (2013). Police behavior during traffic and street stops, 2011. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

None given

The data in this report were drawn from the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) 2011 Police-Public Contact Survey (PPCS), a…

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Henry, T. K. S., & Franklin, T. W. (2017). Police Legitimacy in the Context of Street Stops: The Effects of Race, Class, and Procedural Justice. Criminal Justice Policy Review

Justice, Police strategy, race

Citizens’ perceptions of the police have been recognized as a long-standing issue of significant importance. Positive perceptions of the police,…

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Gau, J. M. (2013). Consent searches as a threat to procedural justice and police legitimacy: An analysis of consent requests during traffic stops. Criminal justice policy review, 24(6), 759-777.

 procedural justice, Consent searches, police legitimacy, traffic citations, traffic stops

Consent searches during traffic stops offer police a way to expediently check motorists’ vehicles for contraband. Asking drivers for consent…

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Gelman, A., Fagan, J., & Kiss, A. (2007). An analysis of the New York City police department’s “stop-and-frisk” policy in the context of claims of racial bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 102(479), 813-823.

Criminology, hierarchical model, multilevel model, police stops, racial bias

Recent studies by police departments and researchers confirm that police stop racial and ethnic minority citizens more often than whites,…

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Giles, H., Linz, D., Bonilla, D., & Gomez, M. L. (2012). Police stops of and interactions with Latino and White (non-Latino) drivers: Extensive policing and communication accommodation. Communication Monographs, 79(4), 407-427.

communication accomodation theory, extensive policing, Latinos, law enforcement, police

Following previous research on traffic stops involving police officers with African American and White drivers, a content analysis of 69…

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Flexon, J. L., Greenleaf, R. G., Dariano, D. S., & Gibson, D. (2016). An examination of police stops and youths’ attitudes toward police: Do interracial encounters matter?. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 14(1), 21-39.

Attitudes toward police, Black youth, interracial stops, White police

Little is known about how police–youth experiences influence adolescents’ views toward police, particularly when the officer is White and the…

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Engel, R. S. (2005). Citizens’ perceptions of distributive and procedural injustice during traffic stops with police. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42(4), 445-481.

 procedural justice, distributive justice, Injustice, police, racial profiling, traffic stops

This article examines the hypothesis that citizens' perceptions of injustice are based on normative factors (i.e., perceptions of equity and…

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