Countries USA

Rengifo, A. F., & Fowler, K. (2016). Stop, question, and complain: citizen grievances against the NYPD and the opacity of police stops across New York City precincts, 2007–2013. Journal of Urban Health, 93(1), 32-41.

civilian complaints, misconduct, policing, question and frisk, stop

Data on police stops can be examined to reflect on the relative “opacity” of these encounters and how aggregate patterns…

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Ridgeway, G. (2009). Cincinnati Police Department traffic stops applying RAND’s framework to analyze racial disparities. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, Center on Quality Policing.

Cincinnatti., discrimination in law enforcement, Ohio, police, Race discrimination, Racial profiling in law enforcement, Traffic Violations

In 2002, the Cincinnati Police Department (CPD) joined with other agencies and organizations to improve police-community relations in the city.…

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Rojek, J., Rosenfeld, R., & Decker, S. (2004). The influence of driver’s race on traffic stops in Missouri. Police Quarterly, 7(1), 126-147.

policing, population weighting, racial profiling, traffic stops

A small but growing body of research has produced several consistent findings regarding race and ethnic differences in traffic stops,…

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Rosenfeld, R., Rojek, J., & Decker, S. (2012). Age matters: Race differences in police searches of young and older male drivers. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 49(1), 31-55.

None given

Prior research on police searches of motorists has consistently found that Black drivers are more likely to be searched than…

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Petrocelli, Piquero, & Smith. (2003). Conflict theory and racial profiling: An empirical analysis of police traffic stop data. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31(1), 1-11.

None given

Using data collected by the Richmond, Virginia Police Department, this article applies conflict theory to police traffic stop practices. In…

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Renauer, B. C. (2012). Neighborhood variation in police stops and searches: A test of consensus and conflict perspectives. Police quarterly, 15(3), 219-240.

conflict theory, racial profiling, racial threat, social conditioning

This study examines consensus and conflict approaches to explaining police stop and search rates in 94 neighborhoods. Police deployment, racial…

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Norris, C., Fielding, N., Kemp, C., & Fielding, J. (1992). Black and blue: An analysis of the influence of race on being stopped by the police. British Journal of Sociology, 207-224.

None given

This article addresses the debate over the disproportionate representation of black people in the criminal justice system, with particular reference…

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Novich, M., & Hunt, G. (2017). “Get off me”: Perceptions of disrespectful police behaviour among ethnic minority youth gang members. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 24(3), 248-255. doi:10.1080/09687637.2016.1239697

 drug-dealing gang members,  police abuse of force,  police interactions,  procedural justice, Gangs, police

Recent media accounts have highlighted issues of use and abuse of police force and policing practices targeted at ethnic minorities…

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O’Reilly, J. (2002). Police Traffic Stops and Racial Profiling Resolving Management, Labor and Civil Rights Conflicts. Springfield: Charles C Thomas.

discrimination in law enforcement, Racial profiling in law enforcement, Traffic Violations

This text examines the numbers, the advocacy arguments and the practical realities of the'racial profiling'controversy. By applying law, logic, electoral…

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