Countries USA

Fagan, J., & Geller, A. (2015). Following the script: Narratives of suspicion in Terry stops in street policing. U. Chi. L. Rev., 82, 51.

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Regulation of Terry stops of pedestrians by police requires articulation of the reasonable and individualized bases of suspicion that motivate…

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Fallik, S. W., & Novak, K. J. (2012). The decision to search: Is race or ethnicity important?. Journal of contemporary criminal justice, 28(2), 146-165.

police, racial profiling, searches

This manuscript examines police officer decision making during automobile stops to determine whether Black and Hispanic drivers are searched at…

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Engel, R. S. (2005). Citizens’ perceptions of distributive and procedural injustice during traffic stops with police. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42(4), 445-481.

 procedural justice, distributive justice, Injustice, police, racial profiling, traffic stops

This article examines the hypothesis that citizens' perceptions of injustice are based on normative factors (i.e., perceptions of equity and…

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Carroll, L., & Gonzalez, M. L. (2014). Out of place: Racial stereotypes and the ecology of frisks and searches following traffic stops. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 51(5), 559-584.

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Objectives: Test hypotheses drawn from Smith and Alpert's social conditioning theory that explains biased policing as the result of implicit…

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Blalock, G., DeVaro, J., Leventhal, S., & Simon, D. H. (2011). Gender bias in power relationships: evidence from police traffic stops. Applied Economics, 43(29), 4469-4485.

bias, citations, Gender, police, power, tickets

We test for the existence of gender bias in power relationships. Speci cally, we examine whether police offcers are less…

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Alpert, Geoffrey P., John M. MacDonald, and Roger G. Dunham. “Police suspicion and discretionary decision making during citizen stops.” Criminology 43.2 (2005): 407-434.

citizen stops, Police decision making, police suspicion

This study examines the influence of racial, demographic and situational variables on types of police suspicion and the ancillary decision…

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