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Fagan, J. A., Geller, A., Davies, G. G., & West, V. (2010). Street stops and broken windows revisited: the demography and logic of proactive policing in a safe and changing city In: Rice SK, White MD, editors. Race and ethnicity in policing.
The contributions of order-maintenance policing and broken windows theory to New York City’s remarkable crime decline have been the subject…Read more
Fagan, J., & Geller, A. (2015). Following the script: Narratives of suspicion in Terry stops in street policing. U. Chi. L. Rev., 82, 51.
Regulation of Terry stops of pedestrians by police requires articulation of the reasonable and individualized bases of suspicion that motivate…Read more
Fallik, S. W., & Novak, K. J. (2012). The decision to search: Is race or ethnicity important?. Journal of contemporary criminal justice, 28(2), 146-165.
This manuscript examines police officer decision making during automobile stops to determine whether Black and Hispanic drivers are searched at…Read more
Engel, R. S. (2005). Citizens’ perceptions of distributive and procedural injustice during traffic stops with police. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42(4), 445-481.
This article examines the hypothesis that citizens' perceptions of injustice are based on normative factors (i.e., perceptions of equity and…Read more
Carroll, L., & Gonzalez, M. L. (2014). Out of place: Racial stereotypes and the ecology of frisks and searches following traffic stops. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 51(5), 559-584.
Objectives: Test hypotheses drawn from Smith and Alpert's social conditioning theory that explains biased policing as the result of implicit…Read more
Blalock, G., DeVaro, J., Leventhal, S., & Simon, D. H. (2011). Gender bias in power relationships: evidence from police traffic stops. Applied Economics, 43(29), 4469-4485.
We test for the existence of gender bias in power relationships. Speci cally, we examine whether police offcers are less…Read more
Alpert, Geoffrey P., John M. MacDonald, and Roger G. Dunham. “Police suspicion and discretionary decision making during citizen stops.” Criminology 43.2 (2005): 407-434.
This study examines the influence of racial, demographic and situational variables on types of police suspicion and the ancillary decision…Read more